Benign MS is a type of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in which few relapses occur and result in very little permanent disability. It is thought that between 10 and 20% of people with MS have benign MS.
Glial cells are brain cells that “support” neurons by providing nutrition for the neurons and insulating them from each other.
The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of gray matter covering the cerebral hemispheres. It is responsible for higher cognitive functioning.
A double-blinded trial is a type of clinical trial in which neither the researchers nor the participants know which drugs are being taken.
A neuropsychologist is a psychologist who specializes in diagnosing and treating neurobiological causes of brain disorders, such as those that occur as a result of multiple sclerosis (MS).
The cerebellum is the part of the brain responsible for the coordination of movement and balance. It is common for MS lesions to be in the cerebellum, which lead to a variety of symptoms, including weakness, lack of coordination and some types of tremors.
An open-label trial is a type of clinical trial in which both the researchers and the study participants know which drugs are being taken.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by a type of polyomavirus called the JC virus (JCV). It has been associated with the use of Tysabri for multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease.
Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nervous system that causes pain, numbness, tingling and/or muscle weakness in the extremities.
Aphasia is difficulty understanding the speech of other people and/or expressing oneself verbally. While people with multiple sclerosis (MS) often have trouble finding words or communicating, this is more often dysphasia, a symptom of MS which is not as severe as aphasia.
An intramuscular (IM) injection is an injection that is given directly into a muscle.
Dysphonia is an impairment of the voice and is a fairly common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Scanning speech is a speech disorder in which syllables of words are separated by pauses. It can be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Neuralgia is sharp pain in a nerve or along a nerve pathway. It can be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Flexor spasms are a form of spasticity in which the legs or other limbs are pulled upward into a clenched position.
Pyramidal tracts are nerve structures that begin in the sensorimotor areas of the cortex and go through the brainstem to the motor neurons of the spinal cord.
Neurons are the basic nerve cells of the nervous system that sends and receives messages between the brain and the body using electrical signals.
A scotoma is an area of reduced vision or blindness. It is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), indicating the presence of optic neuritis.
Hemiparesis is weakness or partial paralysis on one side of the body. It can be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Meta-analysis is a statistical technique which combines the results of several studies.
B cells are a type of white blood cell that produces and secretes antibodies.
Adherence means taking medications (or following other treatment) as prescribed.
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless fluid which flows around the brain and spinal cord to provide nourishment and protection.
Ataxia is a lack of coordination and unsteadiness. It is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Sensory ataxia is a lack of coordination caused by numbness in the feet. It can be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).